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Box 3 Examples of new ecological insights that have been gained in each thematic area with citations

From: Estimating the movements of terrestrial animal populations using broad-scale occurrence data

Ecological insights  
Research Theme 1—Quantify population-level patterns of movement  
• Broad scale migration patterns, including looped migration, and directionality [28, 88, 134, 152, 165, 166]
• Migration timing, including when animals migrate and how quickly they migrate [47, 92, 105, 155, 167, 168]
• Estimates of range expansion or contraction, overall shift in center, area, or edges of range [56, 169]
Research Theme 2—Assess how species traits influence population-level movement  
• Species traits impact range expansion [32] and range shifts during periods of rapid climate change
• Species traits (body mass, total migration distance) impact avian migration patterns [28]
• Species migratory traits affect sensitivity to migration phenology [171]
Research Theme 3—Study how population-level movement correlates with external factors  
• Distance in range shift relative to temperature change, climatic debt [33], and climate velocity during periods of long-term climate transition [170]
• Importance of topography and tailwind for migration [87, 152]
• Environmental correlates of migration including atmospheric conditions [172], temperature [62, 154], and ecological productivity [173, 174]
• Assess whether species presence or absence across sites is affected by other species presence relative to timing of migration [46]
Research Theme 4—Connect movement patterns with conservation or management schema  
• Association of migratory birds with protected areas and land-cover categories across the annual cycle [175, 176]
• Impacts to moving species from projected changes in climate and land use [177]
• Impacts to society from range movement or redistribution due to climate change [178]
• Potential environmental barriers to migration [153]
• Urban effects on occurrence of birds and mammals [179,180,181]
• Conservation planning based on movement and abundance across species’ annual cycles [182]