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Table 5 Best habitat selection models for male Alaska moose from the step-selection function analysis. Natural spline (sp) predictors, where percent canopy interacted with temperature, have coefficients estimated for each line segment. Numbers one and two in the spline predictors represent an individual line segment. All three populations had temperature-canopy interactions with two-line segments. In the Innoko population, elevation was collinear with distance-to-water and was thus excluded. All predictors were standardized by dividing by two times their standard deviation. Robust standard errors are reported

From: Behavioral modifications by a large-northern herbivore to mitigate warming conditions

Predictor Population
Koyukuk Susitna Innoko
Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE)
Elevation −0.45 (0.37) −1.11 (0.28)b NA
sp(Percent Canopy a Temperature)1 27.84 (4.6)b 22.51 (5.5)b 13.02 (3.3)b
sp(Percent Canopy a Temperature)2 24.30 (4.1)b 14.71 (3.8)b 8.50 (2.4)b
Percent Canopy −16.63 (2.9)b −11.81 (3.1)b − 17.60 (2.04)b
Solar Radiation Index 0.02 (0.03) −0.005 (0.003) − 0.12 (0.02)b
Distance-to-Water 0.34 (0.31) −0.59 (0.11)b −0.02 (0.33)
  1. a0.05; **0.01; b0.001