Skip to main content

Table 3 Summary of the full model showing model coefficients (β) with 95% confidence intervals, the standard deviation of the random effects, and the number of observations

From: Roads constrain movement across behavioural processes in a partially migratory ungulate

Variable Categories β 95% C.I. ΔAICREMOVED
log(Step length) − 0.407 [− 0.425, − 0.389] 4697
Forest density 0.347 [0.324, 0.371] 1784
Forest density : Time of day Day (Ref.) 0.347 [0.324, 0.371] 1738
  Night − 0.787 [− 0.825, − 0.749]  
  Twilight − 0.423 [− 0.486, − 0.36]  
Road crossings − 1.379 [− 1.505, − 1.252] 1076
Road crossings : log(Step length) 0.231 [0.205, 0.257] 284
log(Step length) : Sex Female (Ref.) − 0.407 [− 0.425, − 0.389] 142
  Male 0.143 [0.119, 0.168]  
Slope 0.107 [0.081, 0.133] 129
Slope2 − 0.076 [− 0.092, − 0.06] 98
Road crossings : Forest density 0.068 [0.046, 0.09] 44
Road crossings : Time of day Day (Ref.) − 1.379 [− 1.505, − 1.252] 29
  Night 0.110 [0.065, 0.156]  
  Twilight 0.047 [− 0.034, 0.129]  
Elevation difference2 − 0.014 [− 0.02, − 0.007] 28
Elevation difference 0.003 [− 0.015, 0.021] 26
NDVI 0.056 [0.005, 0.107] 24
Road crossings : Sex Female (Ref.) − 1.379 [− 1.505, − 1.252] 16
  Male − 0.066 [− 0.111, − 0.02]  
NDVI2 − 0.023 [− 0.047, 0.002] 11
Road crossings : Movement mode Resident (Ref.) − 1.379 [− 1.505, − 1.252] 7
  Disperser 0.010 [− 0.061, 0.081]  
  Migrant 0.030 [− 0.023, 0.084]  
Random effects Standard deviation    
Individual animals (N=79) 0.041    
Populations (N=6) 0.020    
Number of events: 26892 observed + 268920 random steps
  1. “Ref.” indicates the category of reference for categorical variables. For each variable, we also report the ΔAICREMOVED, i.e., the difference in AIC between the full model and the full model without that variable. Hence, the variables with the highest ΔAICREMOVED are the most important because, when removed, they caused the highest increase in AIC. Variables are listed in order of importance. The AIC of the full model including all variables was 129,748.