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Table 3 Outcome of a Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) that was used to calculate the dissimilarities in offspring investment (trip duration, total distance travelled, flying and foraging) and self-maintenance (time allocated to resting outside the colony) within and between pairs

From: Simultaneous GPS-tracking of parents reveals a similar parental investment within pairs, but no immediate co-adjustment on a trip-to-trip basis

Trip parameters Within pairs Between pairs Observed delta Expected delta
VL     
Total distance (km) 0.223 0.252 7.133 7.895
Trip duration (h) 0.296 0.368 91.980 108.800
Resting (h) 0.231 0.266 3.117 3.481
Flying (h) 0.300 0.356 2.998 3.435
Foraging (h) 0.454 0.528 2.699 3.273
ZB     
Total distance (km) 0.281 0.301 8.468 9.123
Trip duration (h) 0.349 0.404 96.820 112.000
Resting (h) 0.274 0.292 3.479 3.719
Flying (h) 0.352 0.403 3.264 3.754
Foraging (h) 0.490 0.538 3.395 3.849
  1. Dissimilarities are calculated separately for the two colonies [Vlissingen: VL (N = 12 pairs), Zeebrugge: ZB (N = 13 pairs)]. Observed delta is the overall weighted mean of group mean distances. Expected delta is the mean of original dissimilarities, under the null hypothesis of no group structure. Significance of delta is < 0.001 for all parameters