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Table 3 Selecting the best GLMM for log-transformed daily distance (n = 1842 travel days)

From: Adaptive drift and barrier-avoidance by a fly-forage migrant along a climate-driven flyway

Model (fixed effects) df AIC ∆AIC AIC Weight R2 full R2 fixed R2 random
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * travel_hrs * biome 27 758.48 0.00 1.00 0.71 0.70 0.00
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * biome + season 12 801.46 42.98 0.00 0.20 0.19 0.01
~ biome * travel_hrs 9 817.81 59.33 0.00 0.68 0.67 0.01
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * travel_hrs + biome 15 849.94 91.46 0.00 0.70 0.69 0.00
~ travel_hrs * abs (sidewind_track) 10 859.93 101.45 0.00 0.65 0.63 0.01
~ tailwind_track * travel_hrs 9 878.35 119.87 0.00 0.68 0.67 0.01
~ abs (sidewind_track) + travel_hrs 7 879.77 121.29 0.00 0.65 0.63 0.01
~ biome + abs (sidewind_track) 7 895.05 136.57 0.00 0.14 0.13 0.01
~ season + abs (sidewind_track) 6 908.30 149.82 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.01
~ season + biome + travel_hrs 7 909.63 151.15 0.00 0.67 0.67 0.00
~ season * tailwind_track 9 930.52 172.04 0.00 0.08 0.07 0.01
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * season 11 943.53 185.05 0.00 0.09 0.08 0.01
~ biome + tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track) 8 992.51 234.03 0.00 0.18 0.18 0.01
~ tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track) 7 1028.47 269.99 0.00 0.09 0.08 0.01
~ season + tailwind_track + biome 7 1045.48 287.00 0.00 0.18 0.17 0.01
~ season + tailwind_track 6 1055.16 296.68 0.00 0.08 0.07 0.01
~ season + abs (sidewind_track) + travel_hrs 7 1105.61 347.12 0.00 0.66 0.65 0.00
~ biome + travel_hrs 6 1110.26 351.78 0.00 0.67 0.66 0.01
~ abs (sidewind_track) 5 1125.04 366.56 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.01
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * travel_hrs * season 24 2575.59 1817.11 0.00 0.69 0.69 0.00
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * travel_hrs + season 15 2586.38 1827.90 0.00 0.69 0.68 0.00
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * biome * season 16 2587.98 1829.50 0.00 0.21 0.20 0.01
~ biome * tailwind_track 9 2611.55 1853.07 0.00 0.18 0.17 0.01
~ travel_hrs + tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track) 8 2619.54 1861.06 0.00 0.68 0.68 0.01
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * biome 11 2619.68 1861.20 0.00 0.20 0.19 0.01
~ season * travel_hrs 9 2621.50 1863.02 0.00 0.65 0.65 0.00
~ (tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track)) * travel_hrs 11 2685.52 1927.04 0.00 0.68 0.68 0.01
~ season * abs (sidewind_track) 9 2691.59 1933.11 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.01
~ tailwind_track * abs (sidewind_track) 10 2695.00 1936.52 0.00 0.09 0.08 0.01
~ biome + tailwind_track + travel_hrs 8 2697.32 1938.84 0.00 0.69 0.69 0.00
~ season * biome 8 2704.51 1946.03 0.00 0.15 0.14 0.01
~ biome + tailwind_track 7 2707.39 1948.91 0.00 0.18 0.17 0.01
~ season + travel_hrs 6 2808.74 2050.26 0.00 0.65 0.65 0.00
~ season + biome + abs (sidewind_track) 7 2809.29 2050.81 0.00 0.15 0.14 0.01
~ tailwind_track + travel_hrs 7 2810.58 2052.10 0.00 0.68 0.67 0.01
~ biome * abs (sidewind_track) 9 2810.77 2052.29 0.00 0.15 0.15 0.01
~ biome 5 2832.09 2073.61 0.00 0.14 0.13 0.01
~ travel_hrs 6 2834.03 2075.55 0.00 0.64 0.63 0.01
~ season + tailwind_track + travel_hrs 7 2835.69 2077.21 0.00 0.68 0.68 0.00
~ season + tailwind_track + abs (sidewind_track) 7 2928.90 2170.42 0.00 0.09 0.08 0.01
~ season + biome 6 2932.39 2173.91 0.00 0.14 0.14 0.01
~ tailwind_track 5 2950.18 2191.70 0.00 0.08 0.07 0.01
~ season 5 2951.18 2192.70 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.01
~ (1 | dev) + (1 | yr) 4 2963.73 2205.25 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01
  1. We tested an exhaustive set of models including fixed effects of tailwind and sidewind along the realized travel direction, daily travel time, season, their additive effects, and interaction effects between wind variables and daily travel time, biome and season. We further allowed intercepts to vary randomly between individuals and between years. Models are ranked according to increasing ∆AIC values, with the best performing model on top