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Table 1 Median values with upper and lower 95% confidence limits (CI) for models of duck movement of 109 individuals of 3 species of California dabbling ducks. Values are presented by season, for females and males where applicable. Data are estimated from all 30 min interval GPS relocations within 2481 ‘bird days’ (24 h periods)

From: GPS tracking data reveals daily spatio-temporal movement patterns of waterfowl

Model Season HUNT (Nov-Jan) POST-HUNT (Feb-Apr) SUMMER (May-Aug) PRE-HUNT (Sep-Oct)
Species Gadwall F Mallard F Pintail F Pintail M Mallard F Pintail F Pintail M Gadwall F Mallard F Mallard M Gadwall F Mallard F Pintail F
n 7 5 15 6 5 26 6 17 35 6 10 11 18
Total distance per day (km) Median 4.08 5.65 9.03 9.68 5.85 8.48 5.19 3.35 4.95 4.31 4.00 5.82 5.95
±95%CI 2.44–6.80 3.15–10.15 7.05–11.56 6.23–15.05 3.68–9.31 6.91–10.41 3.47–7.77 2.67–4.22 4.11–5.94 2.89–6.43 2.85–5.62 4.03–8.39 4.75–7.45
Step lengtha within segmentb (m) Median 18.99 13.07 16.31 26.46 26.74 26.12 26.46 18.20 19.07 16.72 19.18 14.04 12.16
±95%CI 13.88–26.00 9.04–18.90 13.48–19.72 20.26–34.57 20.20–35.41 22.90–29.79 20.26–34.57 14.97–22.12 16.47–22.07 11.83–23.64 15.11–24.34 11.08–17.80 10.07–17.80
Step length to new segment (km) Median 0.73 1.34 1.05 1.12 0.86 0.84 0.96 0.51 0.76 0.71 0.67 1.06 1.13
±95%CI 0.48–1.09 0.83–2.18 0.87–1.24 0.80–1.57 0.54–1.38 0.69–1.02 0.65–1.46 0.42–0.61 0.66–0.89 0.51–0.98 0.50–0.91 0.78–1.46 0.93–1.38
Segmentb duration (hr) Median 10.29 13.00 8.52 9.16 11.16 7.88 12.59 12.39 10.85 11.98 11.47 11.31 10.01
±95%CI 7.77–13.62 9.58–17.64 7.55–9.60 7.23–11.59 8.98–13.86 7.15–8.69 10.40–15.24 10.60–14.49 9.74–12.10 9.50–15.10 10.16–12.96 9.66–13.24 9.27–10.81
# segmentsb per day Median 4.68 3.73 5.83 5.21 4.33 6.16 3.89 3.99 4.47 4.10 4.12 4.24 4.81
±95%CI 3.51–6.22 2.64–5.28 5.10–6.68 4.06–6.67 3.42–5.49 5.63–6.74 3.18–4.75 3.45–4.63 4.02–4.96 3.28–5.14 3.63–4.68 3.57–5.04 4.47–5.19
Total area used per day (ha) Median 3.54 2.23 3.47 4.11 4.46 6.03 4.77 3.36 3.55 3.62 3.93 2.74 2.58
±95%CI 2.25–5.58 1.33–3.74 2.84–4.25 2.77–6.07 3.28–6.07 5.23–6.97 3.59–6.32 2.75–4.11 3.06–4.13 2.26–5.00 3.10–4.98 2.12–3.55 2.21–3.01
Patchc area (ha) Median 1.19 1.01 0.89 0.86 1.31 1.37 1.70 1.26 1.03 1.18 1.42 0.77 0.70
±95%CI 0.80–1.76 0.62–1.64 0.74–1.06 0.61–1.22 0.95–1.22 1.19–1.58 1.25–2.30 1.03–1.55 0.88–1.20 0.85–1.65 1.09–1.84 0.58–1.03 0.59–0.82
# patchesc per day Median 2.77 2.00 2.80 3.27 2.41 3.04 2.14 2.07 2.44 2.36 2.20 2.31 2.56
±95%CI 2.32–3.31 1.57–2.54 2.59–3.03 2.80–3.82 2.04–2.85 2.87–3.22 1.88–2.44 1.87–2.30 2.27–2.61 2.04–2.72 2.00–2.41 2.03–2.63 2.43–2.70
Overlap (%) Median 1% 2% 1% 1% 0% 2% 3% 2% 1% 2% 1% 1% 0%
±95%CI -1 - 2% 0–4% 0–1% 0–2% −2 - 2% 0–3% 1–6% 1–3% 1–2% 0–3% 1–2% 0–1% 0–1%
Standard distance (SCI)d Median −0.02 −0.03 − 0.11 − 0.06 − 0.07 −0.08 − 0.30 −0.28 − 0.11 −0.11 − 0.04 −0.11 − 0.14
±95%CI −0.17-0.13 −0.24-0.17 − 0.16- -0.06 −0.19-0.06 − 0.18-0.05 −0.15--0.01 − 0.45--0.16 −0.35- -0.22 − 0.15- -0.08 −0.18- -0.03 − 0.15-0.06 −0.22-0.01 − 0.19--0.08
Revisits (#) Median 1.15 1.08 1.34 0.82 1.16 1.84 0.86 1.36 1.45 1.19 1.11 1.26 1.13
±95%CI 0.69–1.90 0.60–1.96 1.06–1.69 0.49–1.35 0.75–1.82 1.59–2.14 0.58–1.28 1.09–1.71 1.23–1.71 0.84–1.69 0.80–1.54 0.87–1.82 0.92–1.39
  1. aStep lengths measure the straight-line distance moved in each 30 min interval
  2. bSegments are temporally continuous sections of the daily (24 h) track that consist of all 30 min interval positions within 300 m from the starting (anchor) point of that section of the track
  3. cPatches are spatially continuous sections of the daily (24 h) track transformed into MCPs to enable area calculation and accounting for revisits to previously used segments
  4. dStandard distance measures the dispersion of patches across the landscape when ≥3 patches were used in a 24 h period