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Table 4 Results of Watson-Williams tests for difference in mean direction between night and dawn

From: Radar quantifies migrant concentration and Dawn reorientation at a Great Lakes shoreline

Location Trial(s) df1 df2a F statistic p-value Difference b (degrees)
Inland All trials 1 119,998 740 ≤ 0.001 11.11
Trial A 1 39,998 0 0.963 0.03
Trial B 1 39,998 729 ≤ 0.001 22.14
Trial C 1 39,998 144 ≤ 0.001 6.98
Shoreline All trials 1 119,998 5048 ≤ 0.001 30.34
Trial A 1 39,998 1756 ≤ 0.001 31.69
Trial B 1 39,998 1772 ≤ 0.001 35.13
Trial C 1 39,998 1370 ≤ 0.001 24.09
Over Water All trials 1 119,998 17,098 ≤ 0.001 51.84
Trial A 1 39,998 7153 ≤ 0.001 57.67
Trial B 1 39,998 5292 ≤ 0.001 58.74
Trial C 1 39,998 4944 ≤ 0.001 41.84
  1. aA random sample of 20,000 targets per biological period were included in each trial-specific test. Samples were pooled for the all-trial tests (n = 120,000). Tests were conducted using R package ‘circular’ [40]. b Difference is the change in mean flight direction between night and dawn. Positive values indicate a clockwise shift