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Table 3 Candidate set of generalised linear mixed models used to investigate the relationship between mean first-passage time (mFPTRmax) and environmental variables of Egyptian Geese and Red-billed Teal. Individual birds (ID) were added as a random effect to all models. See Table 2 and text in Methods for derivation of environmental predictor variables

From: Exploring the environmental drivers of waterfowl movement in arid landscapes using first-passage time analysis

Model Model formula
1 Food quantity mFPTRmax ~ NDVIt + (1|ID)
2 Food quality (16 day) mFPTRmax ~ ΔNDVI t-16 + (1|ID)
3 Food quality (32 day) mFPTRmax ~ ΔNDVI t-32 + (1|ID)
4 Wetland cover mFPTRmax ~ mNDWIt + (1|ID)
5 Wetland cover change (16 day) mFPTRmax ~ ΔmNDWIt-16 + (1|ID)
6 Wetland cover change (32 day) mFPTRmax ~ ΔmNDWI t-32 + (1|ID)
7 Precipitation mFPTRmax ~ Precipt + (1|ID)
8 Precipitation (16 day) mFPTRmax ~ ΔPrecipt-16 + (1|ID)
9 Precipitation (32 day) mFPTRmax ~ ΔPrecipt-32 + (1|ID)
10 Site mFPTRmax ~ site + (1|ID)
11 Temperature & elevation mFPTRmax ~ Temp + Elev + (1|ID)
RM hypothesis:a
12 (16) Food quantity, wetland cover & precipitation (+ temperature & elevation, site) mFPTRmax ~ NDVIt + mNDWIt + Precipt + (1|ID)
13 (17) Food quantity & wetland cover (+ temperature & elevation, site) mFPTRmax ~ NDVIt + mNDWIt + (1|ID)
14 (18) Food quantity & precipitation (+ temperature & elevation, site) mFPTRmax ~ NDVIt + Precipt + (1|ID)
15 (19) Wetland cover & precipitation (+ temperature & elevation, site) mFPTRmax ~ mNDWIt + Precipt + (1|ID)
PM hypothesis:b
20 (24) 16 day Lag Change in food quality, wetland cover & precipitation (+ site) mFPTRmax ~ ΔNDVI t-16 + ΔmNDWI t-16 + ΔPrecipt-16 + (1|ID)
21 (25) Change in food quality & wetland cover (+ site) mFPTRmax ~ ΔNDVI t-16 + ΔmNDWI t-16 + (1|ID)
22 (26) Change in food quality & precipitation (+ site) mFPTRmax ~ ΔNDVI t-16 + ΔPrecipt-16 + (1|ID)
23 (27) Change in wetland cover change & precipitation (+ site) mFPTRmax ~ ΔmNDWI t-16 + ΔPrecipt-16 + (1|ID)
28 (32) 32 day Lag Change in food quality, wetland cover & precipitation (+ site) mFPTRmax ~ ΔNDVI t-32 + ΔmNDWI t-32 + ΔPrecipt-32 + (1|ID)
29 (33) Change in food quality & wetland cover (+ site) mFPTRmax ~ ΔNDVI t-32 + ΔmNDWI t-32 + (1|ID)
30 (34) Change in food quality & precipitation (+ site) mFPTRmax ~ ΔNDVI t-32 + ΔPrecipt-32 + (1|ID)
31 (35) Change in wetland cover change & precipitation (+ site) mFPTRmax ~ ΔmNDWI t-32 + ΔPrecipt-32 + (1|ID)
36 Null mFPTRmax ~ 1 + (1|ID)
  1. RM reactive movement; PM prescient movement
  2. aModels numbers in parentheses comprise of the same set of environmental predictors with extra addition of site, temp and elevation as a predictor variables
  3. bModels numbers in parentheses comprise of the same set of environmental predictors with extra addition of site as a predictor variable