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Table 2 Summary of conventional mechanistic movement process models based on spatiotemporal formulation (time and space), movement metric, types of movement that are accounted for (directed or correlated), and accommodation of multiple movement behavior states using multistate models

From: When to be discrete: the importance of time formulation in understanding animal movement

Time Space Metric Directed Correlated Multistate Reference
discrete discrete position NA NA yes [13-15]
discrete continuous position yes no yes [28]
discrete continuous position yes no no [7]
discrete continuous velocity no yes yes [6]
discrete continuous step length no yes yes [18]
discrete continuous step length and turning angle no yes yes [5]
discrete continuous step length and bearing yes no no [29]
discrete continuous step length and bearing yes yes yes [20,30]
continuous discrete position yes no yes [16]
continuous discrete position yes yes no [17]
continuous discrete velocity yes yes yes [19]
continuous continuous position yes no no [10]
continuous continuous position yes no yes [4,9,31]
continuous continuous step length and turning angle velocity no yes yes [32]
continuous continuous velocity no yes no [33]
continuous continuous velocity yes yes no [8]
continuous continuous velocity yes yes yes [31]
  1. Example references are also provided.