Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Alternative models, the number and values of their parameters, and the goodness of fit statistics (coefficient of determination, R 2 , and the Akaike information criterion, AICc) for each model

From: Elephant movement closely tracks precipitation-driven vegetation dynamics in a Kenyan forest-savanna landscape

Model type Model R2 AICc # of par. "Surf" NDVI Additional parameters
(i) (1) Z = {Z| NDVI = "Surf"NDVI} 0.056 942.7 1 0.599  
Individual (2) Zi = {Z|NDVI = ("Surf"NDVI)i} 0.245 897.2 8 0.64; 0.62; 0.46; 0.62; 0.67; 0.51; 0.63; 0.55  
Individual (3) Zmi = a × Zi + b 0.501 790.7 10 Same as above a = 0.58; b = 435.4
(ii) (4) Zm = a × Z + b 0.462 796.5 3 0.239 a = 0.66; b = 650
  (5) Zm = a × (exp(b × Z)) 0.46 797.6 3 0.239 a = 737.8; b = 0.00057
  (6) Zm = a × Z2 + b × Z + c 0.462 796.6 4 0.239 a = -2.782×10-5; b = 0.70;
c = 635.5
(iii) (7) Zm = a × (dNDVI) + b × Z + c 0.48 789.66 4 0.239 a = -0.44; b = 0.66; c = 650.6
  (8) Zm = a × (dNDVI+) + b × (dNDVI-) + c × Z + d 0.49 786.46 5 0.236 a = -0.71; b = 0.086; d = 0.64;
e = 680.4
  1. Z is the elevational location. "Surf"NDVI marks the parameterized target NDVI value the elephants will follow according to the hypothesis of "surfing the green wave". An underscore i marks an individual-based parameter set or location, Zm marks the resulting modified elevational location following a linear or non-linear surf model. A vertical bar marks a condition, i.e. {Z| NDVI = "Surf"NDVI} means Z where NDVI equals "Surf"NDVI.