# Table 1 Alternative models, the number and values of their parameters, and the goodness of fit statistics (coefficient of determination, R2, and the Akaike information criterion, AICc) for each model

Model type Model R2 AICc # of par. "Surf" NDVI Additional parameters
(i) (1) Z = {Z| NDVI = "Surf"NDVI} 0.056 942.7 1 0.599
Individual (2) Zi = {Z|NDVI = ("Surf"NDVI)i} 0.245 897.2 8 0.64; 0.62; 0.46; 0.62; 0.67; 0.51; 0.63; 0.55
Individual (3) Zmi = a × Zi + b 0.501 790.7 10 Same as above a = 0.58; b = 435.4
(ii) (4) Zm = a × Z + b 0.462 796.5 3 0.239 a = 0.66; b = 650
(5) Zm = a × (exp(b × Z)) 0.46 797.6 3 0.239 a = 737.8; b = 0.00057
(6) Zm = a × Z2 + b × Z + c 0.462 796.6 4 0.239 a = -2.782×10-5; b = 0.70;
c = 635.5
(iii) (7) Zm = a × (dNDVI) + b × Z + c 0.48 789.66 4 0.239 a = -0.44; b = 0.66; c = 650.6
(8) Zm = a × (dNDVI+) + b × (dNDVI-) + c × Z + d 0.49 786.46 5 0.236 a = -0.71; b = 0.086; d = 0.64;
e = 680.4
1. Z is the elevational location. "Surf"NDVI marks the parameterized target NDVI value the elephants will follow according to the hypothesis of "surfing the green wave". An underscore i marks an individual-based parameter set or location, Zm marks the resulting modified elevational location following a linear or non-linear surf model. A vertical bar marks a condition, i.e. {Z| NDVI = "Surf"NDVI} means Z where NDVI equals "Surf"NDVI.