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Table 2 Expected navigational efficiency, E, for an individual asocial random walker navigating using the given standard deviation of individual navigation error, ϵ

From: Copycat dynamics in leaderless animal group navigation

Standard deviation of individual navigation error, ϵ Expected navigational efficiency, E (3 decimal places)
0 1.00
0.2 0.979
0.5 0.843
1 0.556
1.5 0.397
2 0.303
3 0.205
5 0.124