Skip to main content

Table 1 Examples of occurrence datasets that are publicly available or can be accessed through a registered user account

From: Estimating the movements of terrestrial animal populations using broad-scale occurrence data

Example occurrence dataset Sensor type Taxa Spatial extent Temporal extent
iNaturalist; https://www.inaturalist.org [61] Crowdsourced human observers Any Global 2008–present
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF); https://www.gbif.org/ [70] Professional, governmental, and crowdsourced human observers Any Global 2001–present
eBird; https://ebird.org/ [36] CROWDSOURCED human observers Birds Global 1800–present
Herpmapper https://www.herpmapper.org/ [71] Crowdsourced human observers Herptiles Global 2013–present
eButterfly; https://www.e-butterfly.org/ [62] Crowdsourced human observers Lepidoptera North America 2011–present
UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme; https://ukbms.org [59, 72, 73] Volunteer, professional, and governmental human observers Lepidoptera United Kingdom 1976–present
United States weather surveillance radar [74, 75] Weather surveillance radar Aerofauna North America 1991–present
European weather surveillance radar; OPERA [60, 76] Weather surveillance radar Aerofauna Europe 2012–present
North American Bat Monitoring Program; [77] https://www.nabatmonitoring.org/ Professional and governmental acoustic surveys Bats North America 2009–present
Snapshot USA (eMammal);
https://emammal.si.edu/snapshot-usa [55]
Crowdsourced camera traps Terrestrial mammals United States 2019–present
FrogID; https://www.frogid.net.au/
[56, 78]
Crowdsourced human observers via acoustic app Frogs Australia 2017–present
  1. The temporal extent is noted for each dataset, though it is important to recognize that most of these efforts have a significant “ramp up” period, and the frequency and quality of data from the earliest years may not be high enough to support broad-scale analyses. This list is not exhaustive and is meant to illustrate different taxonomic examples across the globe that could be used to infer population-level movement