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Table 4 Results of move persistence mixed effects models for behavioural-environmental model configurations

From: Horizontal-vertical movement relationships: Adélie penguins forage continuously throughout provisioning trips

Model formula AIC LogLik Fixed effects Coefficients
Est SE z-value p value CV QR Est trend (%)
Guard
 ~ Wiggles + SIC + BS + Sex + (1| id) − 12,464 6241 Intercept 3.52 0.20 17.71  < 0.0001 3.05–4.17 100
    Wiggles 0.65 0.01 6.84  < 0.0001 0.59–0.93 100
    SIC 0.07 0.01 2.84  < 0.001 – 0.03–0.26 91
    BS 1.06 0.01 12,138.9  < 0.0001 0.89–1.79 100
    Sex 0.20 0.20 0.89 0.38 – 0.21–1.29 82
Crèche
 ~ Bottom duration + BATH + SST + Sex + (Bottom duration + BATH | id) − 14,245 7132 Intercept 3.67 0.10 108.23  < 0.0001 1.69–4.25 100
    Bottom duration 0.20 0.01 5.51  < 0.0001 – 0.22–0.81 88
    BATH − 0.20 0.60 − 3.85  < 0.0001 – 0.54–0.62 38
    SST 0.83 0.20 52.01  < 0.0001 – 0.24–1.68 88
    Sex 1.75 0.1 150.19  < 0.001 1.32–2.12 100
  1. Move persistence is modelled in relation to the best supported behavioural and environmental predictors separately for guard and crèche, as determined through AIC ranking (see Methods and Tables S2 and S3 for details). Estimated means ± SE are presented for wiggles, bottom duration and bathymetry on the natural log scale and logit scale for SIC. All behavioural and environmental predictors, except for SIC, were centred and scaled. Females are the reference level for the categorical Sex term. Model terms with a significant p-value at the 0.05 level are highlighted in bold text. 95% quantile range (QR) of coefficients from the “leave-one-out” cross validation (CV) are also presented alongside the percentage of CV model fits in which the estimated coefficients show a sign consistent with the final full model coefficients (refer to Methods for details)