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Table 2 Static and dynamic environmental predictors used to examine Adélie penguin movement-environment relationships

From: Horizontal-vertical movement relationships: Adélie penguins forage continuously throughout provisioning trips

Covariate type Predictor Description
Static variables Bathymetry (BATH) Estimated sea floor depth (m) at a 0.02° × 0.02° spatial resolution [66]. Influences the horizontal and vertical circulation of water masses, upwelling nutrients and enhancing productivity [67]
Bathymetry slope (BS) Gradient (°) of the sea floor calculated from BATH data at a 0.02° × 0.02° spatial resolution [66]. Ecological importance analogous to BATH [67]
Dynamic variables Sea-ice concentration (SIC) Passive microwave estimates of daily sea ice cover (%) extracted at a 25 km x 25 km spatial resolution (the finest resolution available over the whole study period) [68]. Provides insight into open water accessibility or as a resting platform [69]
Sea surface temperature (SST) Measured daily in °C at a 0.25° × 0.25° spatial resolution [70]. Reflects the temperature of water masses and fronts, which can influence biological productivity [71]
Sea surface height (SSH) Variability of the daily sea surface height (m) at a 0.25° × 0.25° spatial resolution, obtained using E.U, Copernicus Marine Service Information (http://marine.copernicus.eu). Indication of water masses and fronts. Ecological importance analogous to SSH [71]