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Table 4 Fixed effects on log-transformed daily distance and daily mean travel speed as estimated by our best GLMMs

From: Adaptive drift and barrier-avoidance by a fly-forage migrant along a climate-driven flyway

Response variable Model term Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(>|z|)
Log (Daily Distance) (Intercept) 4.628 0.121 38.228 0.000
tailwind_track 0.064 0.027 2.349 0.019
abs (sidewind_track) 0.023 0.032 0.733 0.463
travel_hrs 0.099 0.008 12.406 0.000
biome_humid forest −0.165 0.274 −0.602 0.547
biome_other −0.509 0.131 −3.875 0.000
biome_sea 0.481 0.180 2.678 0.007
tailwind_track: travel_hrs −0.002 0.002 −0.830 0.407
abs (sidewind_track): travel_hrs −0.001 0.002 −0.554 0.580
tailwind_track: biome_humid forest −0.167 0.108 −1.543 0.123
tailwind_track: biome_other −0.037 0.029 −1.260 0.208
tailwind_track: biome_sea −0.053 0.035 −1.498 0.134
abs (sidewind_track): biome_humid forest −0.017 0.089 −0.186 0.852
abs (sidewind_track): biome_other 0.030 0.036 0.829 0.407
abs (sidewind_track): biome_sea −0.065 0.049 −1.325 0.185
travel_hrs: biome_humid forest 0.003 0.019 0.148 0.882
travel_hrs: biome_other 0.024 0.009 2.637 0.008
travel_hrs: biome_sea −0.029 0.012 −2.439 0.015
tailwind_track: travel_hrs: biome_humid forest 0.008 0.007 1.053 0.293
tailwind_track: travel_hrs: biome_other 0.002 0.002 1.217 0.224
tailwind_track: travel_hrs: biome_sea 0.002 0.002 0.958 0.338
abs (sidewind_track): travel_hrs: biome_humid forest 0.001 0.006 0.084 0.933
abs (sidewind_track): travel_hrs: biome_other −0.002 0.003 −0.641 0.521
abs (sidewind_track): travel_hrs: biome_sea 0.005 0.004 1.319 0.187
Log (Daily Mean Travel Speed) (Intercept) 1.820 0.101 18.014 0.000
tailwind_track 0.068 0.023 3.021 0.003
abs (sidewind_track) −0.011 0.026 −0.402 0.688
travel_hrs 0.029 0.007 4.312 0.000
biome_humid forest −0.159 0.228 −0.696 0.487
biome_other −0.440 0.109 −4.020 0.000
biome_sea 0.428 0.150 2.863 0.004
tailwind_track: travel_hrs −0.002 0.002 −1.328 0.184
abs (sidewind_track): travel_hrs 0.000 0.002 0.263 0.792
tailwind_track: biome_humid forest −0.158 0.090 −1.748 0.081
tailwind_track: biome_other −0.029 0.024 −1.204 0.229
tailwind_track: biome_sea −0.051 0.029 −1.759 0.079
abs (sidewind_track): biome_humid forest −0.014 0.074 −0.183 0.855
abs (sidewind_track): biome_other 0.045 0.030 1.512 0.131
abs (sidewind_track): biome_sea 0.023 0.041 0.562 0.574
travel_hrs: biome_humid forest 0.003 0.016 0.169 0.866
travel_hrs: biome_other 0.020 0.007 2.623 0.009
travel_hrs: biome_sea −0.024 0.010 −2.436 0.015
tailwind_track: travel_hrs: biome_humid forest 0.008 0.006 1.359 0.174
tailwind_track: travel_hrs: biome_other 0.002 0.002 1.281 0.200
tailwind_track: travel_hrs: biome_sea 0.002 0.002 1.275 0.202
abs (sidewind_track): travel_hrs: biome_humid forest 0.000 0.005 0.087 0.930
abs (sidewind_track): travel_hrs: biome_other −0.003 0.002 −1.313 0.189
abs (sidewind_track): travel_hrs: biome_sea − 0.001 0.003 − 0.312 0.755
  1. We consider coefficient estimates to be significant at P < 0.05 (bold)