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Table 3 Estimates and 95% confidence intervals of the movement parameters, for the selected 3-state models. The step lengths are modeled with a gamma distribution, and the turning angles with a von Mises distribution based on 1-h data set for resident and non-resident collared leopards

From: Understanding decision making in a food-caching predator using hidden Markov models

 State 1 (resting)State 2 (moderately active)State 3 (traveling)
Resident
 Step mean (km)0.006 (0.006,0.007)0.095 (0.080,0.113)0.600 (0.570,0.625)
 Step SD (km)0.005 (0.004,0.005)0.100 (0.080,0.121)0.430 (0.410,0.451)
 Angle mean (radians)−2.97 (−2.80,-3.15)3.10 (2.82,3.84)0.04 (−0.03,0.10)
 Angle concentration0.46 (0.38,0.55)0.41 (0.27,0.57)1.11 (1.00,1.22)
Non-resident
 Step mean (km)0.009 (0.008,0.009)0.147 (0.126,0.172)0.740 (0.705,0.777)
 Step SD (km)0.007 (0.007,0.008)0.180 (0.154,0.210)0.489 (0.467,0.513)
 Angle mean (radians)3.10 (3.00,3.20)2.74 (1.31,3.79)−0.02 (−0.07,0.03)
 Angle concentration0.57 (051,0.64)0.08 (0.02,0.17)1.56 (1.40,1.73)