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Table 1 Estimates, standard errors and p-values of the effect of the distance to the light, the spectrum and the mutual interaction on the probability of bats flying inside the forest when unlit control (A) and white spectrum (B) were used as intercept (***p < .001, **p < .01, *p < .05). Results are presented for all positions, and positions above, under, behind and in front of the light (see Fig. 1 for placement definitions), and derived from generalized linear mixed models

From: Bats seek refuge in cluttered environment when exposed to white and red lights at night

  Eptesicus/Nyctalus Myotis/Plecotus Pipistrellus
All positions N=1788 N=692 N=26,166
Dist. to light −0.950 ± 0.020 *** −1.864 ± 0.736 * −0.188 ± 0.036 ***
Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red −0.679 ± 4.278 3.056 ± 4.055 5.185 ± 1.570 ***
(A) Unlit vs. White 18.890 ± 4.004 *** 16.736 ± 7.994 * 3.522 ± 1.491*
(B) White vs. Red −19.569 ± 3.502 *** −13.680 ± 8.379 1.663 ± 1.509
Dist. to light: Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red −1.013 ± 0.044 *** −0.508 ± 0.376 −0.802 ± 0.067 ***
(A) Unlit vs. White −1.639 ± 0.435 *** −1.537 ± 0.742 * −0.385 ± 0.040 ***
(B) White vs. Red 0.625 ± 0.055 *** 1.029 ± 0.790 −0.417 ± 0.059 ***
Vertical location: above light N=1708 N=465 N=19,438
Dist. to light −0.951 ± 0.020 *** −1.715 ± 794 * −0.207 ± 0.038 ***
Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red 37.339 ± 8.043 *** −4.277 ± 6.453 2.587 ± 1.690
(A) Unlit vs. White 20.557 ± 3.787 *** 7.801 ± 8.163 2.721 ± 1.596 .
(B) White vs. Red 16.784 ± 8.092 * −12.078 ± 8.351 −0.134 ± 1.623
Dist. to light: Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red −6.282 ± 0.187 *** 0.783 ± 0.914 −0.477 ± 0.074 ***
(A) Unlit vs. White −1.487 ± 0.044 *** −0.507 ± 1.059 −0.369 ± 0.043 ***
(B) White vs. Red −4.795 ± 0.190 *** 1.290 ± 0.856 −0.108 ± 0.066
Vertical location: under light N=80 N=227 N=6728
Dist. to light / / −0.567 ± 0.043 ***
Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red / / 10.751 ± 2.080 ***
(A) Unlit vs. White / / 5.340 ± 1.944 **
(B) White vs. Red / / 5.411 ± 1.480 ***
Dist. to light: Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red / / −1.624 ± 0.197 ***
(A) Unlit vs. White / / −0.581 ± 0.162 ***
(B) White vs. Red / / −1.044 ± 0.128 ***
Horizontal location: backside N=895 N=326 N=6433
Dist. to light −0.520 ± 0.380 / −0.347 ± 0.548
Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red −47.725 ± 29.775 / −10.136 ± 7.872
(A) Unlit vs. White −13.521 ± 7.152 . / −5.289 ± 7.145
(B) White vs. Red −34.205 ± 28.608 / −4.847 ± 3.978
Dist. to light: Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red 1.977 ± 1.134 . / 0.715 ± 0.588
(A) Unlit vs. White 0.676 ± 0.408 . / 0.429 ± 0.559
(B) White vs. Red 1.302 ± 1.026 / 0.286 ± 0.240
Horizontal location: front side N=893 N=366 N=19,733
Dist. to light −0.748 ± 157 *** 0.959 ± 0.602 −0.555 ± 0.021 ***
Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red 1.082 ± 3.269 18.784 ± 9.528 * 7.343 ± 1.893***
(A) Unlit vs. White 6.229 ± 2.215 ** 45.356 ± 20.498 * 4.534 ± 1.818 *
(B) White vs. Red −5.147 ± 3.384 −26.572 ± 19.127 2.809 ± 1.779
Dist. to light: Spectrum (A) Unlit vs. Red −0.538 ± 0.326 . − 2.587 ± 1.036 * −1.070 ± 0.079 ***
(A) Unlit vs. White −0.558 ± 0.170 ** −5.466 ± 2.590 * −0.468 ± 0.047 ***
(B) White vs. Red 0.020 ± 0.338 2.879 ± 2.555 −0.602 ± 0.070 ***
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