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Table 4 Best habitat selection models by population for female moose (Alces alces gigas) in Alaska from the step-selection function analysis. The best models across all four populations occurred when percent canopy interacted with temperature nonlinearly and are presented here. Natural spline (sp) predictors, where percent canopy interacted with temperature, have coefficients estimated for each line segment. Therefore, numbers one through three in the spline predictor terms represent an individual line segment. Only one of four populations (Tanana) has a third set of coefficients. In the Innoko population, elevation was collinear with distance-to-water and was thus excluded. All predictors were standardized by dividing by two times their standard deviation, making coefficients directly comparable. Robust standard errors are reported

From: Behavioral modifications by a large-northern herbivore to mitigate warming conditions

Predictor Population
Koyukuk Susitna Innoko Tanana
Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE)
Elevation 0.09 (0.16) −1.21 (0.25)b NA 0.28 (0.39)
sp(Percent Canopy x Temperature) 1 24.91 (3.7)b 33.90 (3.1)b 14.82 (3.32)b 4.71 (1.07)b
sp(Percent Canopy x Temperature)2 20. 03 (3.1)b 20.09 (1.9)b 9.01 (2.14)b 8.97 (2.22)b
sp(Percent Canopy x Temperature)3 NA NA NA 7.70 (1.97)b
Percent Canopy −13.90 (2.2)b −16.60 (1.6)b −7.90 (1.92)b −4.80 (1.21)b
Solar Radiation Index 0.02 (0.02) 0.003 (0.02) −0.18 (0.02)b −0.0006 (0.02)
Distance-to-Water −0.66 (0.3)a − 0.48 (0.09)b −0.22 (0.16) − 0.09 (0.07)
  1. a0.05; **0.01; b0.001