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Table 2 Theoretical model for the rate of oxygen consumption (\( \dot{V}{\mathrm{O}}_2 \)) based on a puma walking 100 m up a 30° path angle. Paths compared include climbing straight up or traversing back and forth at path angles of 2, 7, or 15 degrees. \( \dot{V}{\mathrm{O}}_2 \) is calculated per min and then totalled for how long it would take the puma to reach the end point based on the distance travelled and speed. ‘Poor’ energetic options are indicated due to the \( \dot{V}{\mathrm{O}}_2 \) exceeding maximum aerobic capacity or time exceeding 20 min. ‘Good’ energetic options show the optimal locomotion speed and path angle, and ‘moderate’ options are also indicated, which are often used

From: Surviving in steep terrain: a lab-to-field assessment of locomotor costs for wild mountain lions (Puma concolor)

Speed (m s− 1) Path angle (degrees) \( \dot{\boldsymbol{V}} \)O2 (mlO2kg− 1 min− 1) Distance (m) Time (min) Total O2 (mlO2kg− 1) Energetic viability
0.1 2.0 9.7 1432.7 238.8 2320.7 Poor
0.1 7.0 10.9 410.3 68.4 744.9 Poor
0.1 15.0 12.8 193.2 32.2 411.3 Poor
0.1 30.0 16.3 100.0 16.7 271.7 Moderate
0.5 2.0 15.3 1432.7 47.8 730.2 Poor
0.5 7.0 19.4 410.3 13.7 265.4 Moderate
0.5 15.0 26.0 193.2 6.4 167.4 Good
0.5 30.0 38.3 100.0 3.3 127.8 Poor
1.0 2.0 22.3 1432.7 23.9 531.4 Poor
1.0 7.0 30.0 410.3 6.8 205.5 Moderate
1.0 15.0 42.5 193.2 3.2 136.9 Poor
1.0 30.0 65.9 100.0 1.7 109.8 Poor
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