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Table 4 Distribution and activity parameters of Blue Petrels, Thin-billed prions and Antarctic Prions from Kerguelen Islands during the pre-laying exodus

From: Niche switching and leapfrog foraging: movement ecology of sympatric petrels during the early breeding season

  Blue petrel Thin-billed prion Antarctic Prion Multifactorial ANOVA
Males Females Males Females Males Females Species effect Sex effect
Pre-laying exodus: N 4 8 7 8 7 4   
 Mean distance to colony (km) 1086 ± 268 2078 ± 826 1429 ± 451 1654 ± 445 813 ± 136 1269 ± 273 F2,32 = 5.0,P = 0.013 F1,33 = 9.5,P = 0.004
 Max. distance to colony (km) 1995 ± 510 3418 ± 1283 2225 ± 713 2660 ± 673 1505 ± 317 1842 ± 182 F2,32 = 5.9,P < 0.001 F1,33 = 6.5,P = 0.016
 Mean longitude (°E) 71.4 ± 9.0 78.7 ± 29.1 53.0 ± 8.7 47.9 ± 7.9 76.1 ± 4.3 83.1 ± 7.5 F2,32 = 12.2,P = 0.002 F1,33 = 0.3, P = 0.598
 Mean latitude (°S) 48.2 ± 3.9 49.4 ± 2.6 52.3 ± 3.2 52.1 ± 1.3 52.0 ± 2.5 55.3 ± 0.7 F2,32 = 7.8,P = 0.002 F1,33 = 2.8, P = 0.101
 Time foraging (hours/day) 14.4 ± 1.3 14.4 ± 6.4 17.8 ± 0.6 17.6 ± 0.7 16.1 ± 1.0 14.9 ± 2.1 F2,32 = 23.0,P < 0.001 F1,33 = 1.5, P = 0.236
  - During daytime 8.9 ± 0.6 8.4 ± 1.1 12.0 ± 0.5 11.3 ± 0.8 10.3 ± 0.7 9.4 ± 1.5 F2,32 = 25.4,P < 0.001 F1,33 = 4.1, P = 0.052
  - During night time 5.1 ± 0.7 5.5 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 1.1 1.9 ± 0.9 F2,32 = 26.5,P < 0.001 F1,33 = 2.5, P = 0.122
  - During dusk 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.1 2.4 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.5 F2,32 = 24.1,P < 0.001 F1,33 = 2.5, P = 0.123
  - During dawn 0.2 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 0.1 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.1 F2,32 = 19.7,P < 0.001 F1,33 = 0.3, P = 0.614
 Time in flight (hours/day) 9.1 ± 1.4 8.7 ± 0.4 4.5 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 0.9 6.6 ± 1.4 6.3 ± 3.1 F2,32 = 24.3,P < 0.001 F1,33 = 0.7, P = 0.420
 Time on water (hours/day) 0.5 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 1.4 F2,32 = 11.7,P < 0.001 F1,33 = 11.3,P = 0.002
  1. Multifactorial ANOVA were carried out with interactions. However, interactions were not statistically significant (all P > 0.05) and are therefore not given here