Response variable

Fixed factors

Model estimates

Chisq

∆AICc

pvalue

df

R^{2}m

R^{2}c


Log (Duration)

Intercept U.

1.22 ± 0.09
^{a}

89.55

81.55

<2e16

4

0.13

0.23

Marine

−0.40 ± 0.10^{b}
      
Intertidal

−0.35 ± 0.09^{b}

Terrestrial

− 0.77 ± 0.09^{c}

Mixed

−0.06 ± 0.11^{a}

Sqrt (Flapping)

Intercept U.

0.92 ± 0.05
^{a}

120.58

112.58

<2e16

4

0.18

0.25

Marine

−0.06 ± 0.05^{a}
      
Intertidal

−0.30 ± 0.05^{b}

Terrestrial

−0.43 ± 0.05^{c}

Mixed

−0.05 ± 0.06^{a}

Log (Energy)

Intercept U.

4.46 ± 0.04^{a}

96.20

88.20

<2e16

4

0.15

0.16

Marine

0.09 ± 0.06
^{a}
      
Intertidal

−0.27 ± 0.05^{b}

Terrestrial

−0.29 ± 0.05^{b}

Mixed

−0.05 ± 0.06^{a}

 We used linear mixedeffect models with habitat category as fixed effect and bird ID as random intercept. Model estimates and standard error (SE) are shown for the five categories; Intercept U is the intercept and the estimate for category urban. When the estimates for the other fixed factors are negative, this category has a lower output of the response variable than the Intercept U. When the estimates of the other fixed factors are positive, this category has a higher output of the response variable than the Intercept U. The fixed factor with the highest model estimate per model is printed in bold and the statistical differences of the groups are indicated with letters. We provided the marginal (R^{2}m) and conditional (R^{2}c) for every model which represents, respectively, the variance explained for the fixed factors alone or the variance explained taking by both the fixed and random factors (individual birdIDs)