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Table 3 Model results of the relationship between habitat use and response variables the logarithm of trip duration in hours (Log (Duration)), the square root of duration of flapping flight in hours (sqrt (Flapping)), and the logarithm of energy expenditure in kJ per hour (log (energy))

From: Foraging for high caloric anthropogenic prey is energetically costly

Response variable Fixed factors Model estimates Chisq ∆AICc p-value df R2m R2c
Log (Duration) Intercept U. 1.22 ± 0.09 a 89.55 81.55 <2e-16 4 0.13 0.23
Marine −0.40 ± 0.10b       
Intertidal −0.35 ± 0.09b
Terrestrial − 0.77 ± 0.09c
Mixed −0.06 ± 0.11a
Sqrt (Flapping) Intercept U. 0.92 ± 0.05 a 120.58 112.58 <2e-16 4 0.18 0.25
Marine −0.06 ± 0.05a       
Intertidal −0.30 ± 0.05b
Terrestrial −0.43 ± 0.05c
Mixed −0.05 ± 0.06a
Log (Energy) Intercept U. 4.46 ± 0.04a 96.20 88.20 <2e-16 4 0.15 0.16
Marine 0.09 ± 0.06 a       
Intertidal −0.27 ± 0.05b
Terrestrial −0.29 ± 0.05b
Mixed −0.05 ± 0.06a
  1. We used linear mixed-effect models with habitat category as fixed effect and bird ID as random intercept. Model estimates and standard error (SE) are shown for the five categories; Intercept U is the intercept and the estimate for category urban. When the estimates for the other fixed factors are negative, this category has a lower output of the response variable than the Intercept U. When the estimates of the other fixed factors are positive, this category has a higher output of the response variable than the Intercept U. The fixed factor with the highest model estimate per model is printed in bold and the statistical differences of the groups are indicated with letters. We provided the marginal (R2m) and conditional (R2c) for every model which represents, respectively, the variance explained for the fixed factors alone or the variance explained taking by both the fixed and random factors (individual birdIDs)