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Table 2 Habitat use outside the breeding colony of non-commuting GPS data of all herring gulls used in this study (n = 17) and foraging trip details (n = 605)

From: Foraging for high caloric anthropogenic prey is energetically costly

Habitat Time (h) Time (%) Nr. trips Mean trip duration Proportion flapping trip −1 Rate of energy expenditure Total energy
Urban 155 14 66 4.02 ± 2.28 0.25 ± 0.11 89.41 ± 21.88 357.17 ± 205.50
Marine 199 18 86 2.66 ± 1.46 0.34 ± 0.17 100.70 ± 33.97 261.52 ± 152.22
Intertidal 535 48 271 2.78 ± 1.70 0.17 ± 0.11 69.88 ± 21.78 196.65 ± 127.88
Terrestrial 232 21 127 2.01 ± 1.67 0.17 ± 0.17 71.96 ± 34.63 146.89 ± 138.62
Mixed 55 4.00 ± 2.23 0.24 ± 0.12 85.10 ± 23.27 323.52 ± 180.79
  1. Total time in hours (Time (h)) and percentages (Time (%)) of non-commuting GPS data of all herring gulls used in this study, the number of trips per habitat category (Nr. Trips), mean ± standard error of the trip duration per habitat category (Mean trip duration; h), the proportion of flapping flight per trip per habitat category (Proportion flapping trip−1) and the average energy expenditure per time (Rate of energy expenditure; kJ h− 1) and per trip (Total energy; kJ) per habitat category