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Table 2 Distance ratios in relation to the distance of the actual migration route, as calculated in this study, for simulated trajectories based on different compass mechanisms in five individuals of northern wheatear migrating between Alaska and Eastern Africa, as revealed by light-level geolocation (cf. [32]); see Fig. 4)

From: Feasibility of sun and magnetic compass mechanisms in avian long-distance migration

Autumn migration Departure location Arrival location Distance of actual route (km) Great circle route Rhumbline route Time-comp. sunset compass route Fixed (menotactic) sunset compass route Fixed (menotactic) magnetic compass route Magnetoclinic compass route
B070 66°N, 145°E 13°N, 37°E 12840 0.88 1.17 0.88 1.01 1.15
E552 65.5°N,145.4°E 7°N, 30°E 14440 0.83 1.08 0.83 0.96 1.11
E553 68.6°N, 149.5°E 3°N, 30°E 13970 0.87 1.14 0.88 0.99 1.13
B801 65°N, 145°E 8°N, 34°E 13950 0.85 1.13 0.85 0.99 1.12
B823 65°N, 146°E 12°N, 31°E 14160 0.81 1.08 0.81 0.94 1.09
Spring migration Departure location Arrival location Distance of actual route (km) Great circle route Rhumbline route Time-comp. sunset compass route Fixed (menotactic) sunset compass route Fixed (menotactic) magnetic compass route Magnetoclinic compass route
B070 12°N, 40°E 65.5°N,145.4°E 13310 0.86 1.13 0.92 0.98 1.11 0.99
E552 5°N, 30°E 66°N, 145°E 14270 0.85 1.10 0.94 0.97 1.14 1.01
E553 3°N, 30°E 68.6°N, 149.5°E 13450 0.90 1.19 0.98 0.98 1.19 1.04
B801 9°N, 36°E 65°N, 145°E 13370 0.88 1.18 0.95 1.00 1.15 1.03
B823 6°N, 31°E 65°N, 146°E 13620 0.89 1.17 0.96 1.03 1.19 1.04