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Table 3 Results of seasonal difference between pre- and post-breeding migration in four EAAF migratory sandpipers

From: Time versus energy minimization migration strategy varies with body size and season in long-distance migratory shorebirds

  Sanderling Turnstone Great Knot Curlew
n 12 60 7 9
(i) Migration speed
Traditional V = 78 ( p = 0.000) t 59  = 12.2 ( p = 0.00) V = 17 (p = 0.688) V = 45 ( p = 0.004)
Partial V = 78 ( p = 0.000) t 59  = 2.7 ( p = 0.010) V = 10 (p = 0.578) V = 0 ( p = 0.031) a
(ii) Number of staging sites V = 0 ( p = 0.003) t 59  = −4.9 ( p = 0.000) V = 2.5 (p = 0.424) V = 3.5 (p = 0.129)
(iii) Total migration distance V = 20 (p = 0.151) t 59  = −2.44 ( p = 0.018) V = 0 ( p = 0.016) V = 8 (p = 0.353)
(iv) Maximum step length V = 75 ( p = 0.002) t 59  = 6.23 ( p = 0.00) V = 4 (p = 0.109) V = 15 (p = 0.059)
  1. aFor three Curlews migrating around the equinox their timing of migration and there with their partial migration speed could not be determined with sufficient accuracy, resulting in a sample size of 6 instead of 9 for this variable
  2. Paired-t test was used for Turnstone and Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for the other three species. n depicts sample size. Significant results (p < 0.05) are highlighted in bold