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Table 1 Comparison of available methods to process geolocation data

From: A probabilistic algorithm to process geolocation data

  Hill 1994 [7], Hill & Braun 2001 [18] Teo et al. 2004 [32] Domeier et al. 2005 [33] Royer et al. 2005 [34] Ekstrom 2007 [21] Nielsen et al. 2006 [24], Lam et al. 2008 [35] Tremblay et al. 2009 [28] Sumner et al. 2009 [26] Nielsen & Sibert 2007 [25], Lam et al. 2010 [36] Rakhimberdiev et al. 2015 [27] this study
Principle to infer locations from light data threshold threshold (only longitude) threshold (only longitude) - template fit threshold - curve model template fit template fit threshold
Data needed for method twilight events twilight events twilight events “raw” locations full light range data twilight events “raw” locations clipped light range data full light range data clipped light range data twilight events
R package GeoLight [23]      Ukfsst   SGAT, Trip Estimation Trackit FlightR probGLS
Account for difference in shading      +    +   + +
Account for movement between twilight events         + + +  
Estimated locations during equinox   + +   + +   + + + +
Uncertainty estimates     + + + + + + + +
Spatial error structure    constant constant estimated through the geolocation process ad hoc parametric model constant estimated through the geolocation process estimated through the geolocation process estimated through the geolocation process estimated through the geolocation process
State space model     +   +   + + +  
Optimisation   best match for latitude least cost track particle filter least squares unscented Kalman filter probability sampling MCMC (block update) unscented Kalman filter particle filter probability sampling
Land scape mask   +   +    + +   + +
Optional/ mandatory environmental characteristics   /SST /SST /SST, depth   SST, depth/ SST/ SST/ SST, depth/ possible to implement/ SST, depth, sea ice …/
Optional/ mandatory speed input   +/ /+ /+     /+   +/ +/
Developed mainly for all organisms fish fish fish all organisms fish marine organisms marine organisms fish terrestrial birds marine organisms