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Table 3 Summary statistics for GLMMs to look at field characteristics and temporal influences on the probability of lesser black-backed gulls being present on agricultural fields (observations = 300, n fields = 50, n transects = 10). We then tested for associations between lesser black-backed gulls and the number of birds of -other gull species (all gulls excluding lesser black-backed gulls), −waders (lapwings and oystercatchers), and the number of earthworms; by including these terms along with the best fit model (9). All models included field nested within transect as a random effect. Akaike information criterion adjusted for small sample sizes (AICc), change in AICc relative to the best-fit model (9) and marginal R2 (R2m) and conditional R2 (R2c) values are presented

From: Land or sea? Foraging area choice during breeding by an omnivorous gull

  Model d.f. AICc ∆AICc R2m R2c
1 day 4 144.1 36.5 0.002 0.55
2 intercept 3 142.3 34.7 - 0.54
3 crop + veg.height + veg.cover 11 121.9 14.4 0.82 0.95
4 crop + veg.height 8 118.1 10.5 0.86 0.95
5 obs.per + day 6 117.9 10.3 0.11 0.92
6 veg.height + veg.cover 7 117.1 9.52 0.83 0.94
7 obs.per 5 116.3 8.73 0.11 0.92
8 veg.height 4 110.9 3.32 0.83 0.94
9 veg.height + obs.per 6 107.6 0.00 0.74 0.89
10 model 9 + earthworm 4 109.7 2.09 0.74 0.89
11 model 9 + waders 4 104.8 −2.80 0.77 0.88
12 model 9 + gulls 4 83.9 −23.6 0.77 0.96
  1. crop = crop type, day = morning/evening, earthworm = number of earthworms, gulls = number of other gulls, obs.per = observation period, veg.cover = vegetation cover, veg.height = vegetation height, waders = number of waders (lapwing and oystercatcher)
  2. Selected model (9) is indicated in bold