Explanatory variable

Type of variable

Response


Nest success

Partial hatching of clutches

Return rate

Breeding movements

Change in body mass


Geolocator

Fixed (binomial)

X

X

X

X

X

Sex

Fixed (categorical)

–

–

X

–

–

Nest success^{a}

Fixed (categorical)

–

–

X

–

–

Previously marked^{b}

Fixed (binomial)

–

–

X

–

–

Body mass

Fixed (continuous)

–

–

X

–

–

Capture date

Fixed (continuous)

–

–

X

–

–

Blood sample

Fixed (binomial)

–

–

X

–

–

Marker mass^{c}

Fixed (continuous)

–

–

X

–

–

Difference between capture and recapture date

Fixed (continuous)

–

–

–

–

X

Difference between capture and recapture nest age

Fixed (continuous)

–

–

–

–

X

Site

Random on intercept and slope of geolocator effect

X

X

X

X

X

Year

Random on intercept

X

X

X

X

X

Individual

Random on intercept

–

–

X

–

–

Species

Random on intercept

–

X

–

X

X

 Geolocator was the primary variable of interest, but other variables were included (denoted by “X”) in speciesspecific GLMMs to control for potential confounding factors and identify subsets of the population that could be targeted to improve recovery rates of geolocators in future field studies.

^{a}For individuals with multiple nest attempts in 1 year, we used the fate of the final attempt as a potential explanatory variable of return rate

^{b}Whether the current capture record is a recapture of an individual that was previously marked at the capture site

^{c}Total mass of color markers and metal band applied to each individual, not including the geolocator or attachment