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Table 4 Black-footed albatross: Mean values of behavioral parameters and track characteristics for each cluster

From: Shadowed by scale: subtle behavioral niche partitioning in two sympatric, tropical breeding albatross species

     Cluster BF1 Cluster BF2 Cluster BF3
     N = 6 N = 4 N = 10
  Test F P Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Behavioral parameters
% Day in transita gls 9.8 0.001** 11.6 ± 1.9 28.9 ± 13.3c 30.1 ± 18.3c
% Night in transit lm 3.0 0.08* 36.3 ± 16.7c 11.9 ± 8.9 36.0 ± 25.0c
% Day in transit forageb lm 12.7 0.0004** 43.0 ± 7.6 12.3 ± 2.6c 14.4 ± 10.5c
% Night in transit foragea gls 5.8 0.01** 13.7 ± 9.8 2.2 ± 2.6c 3.4 ± 2.6c
% Day in ARSb lm 0.7 0.51 6.3 ± 6.6 10.5 ± 4.8 7.8 ± 5.4
% Night in ARSb gls 5.1 0.02** 27.1 ± 12.4c 7.8 ± 5.2 19.1 ± 10.4c
% Day in ARS forage lm 0.5 0.62 20.0 ± 7.9 15.9 ± 6.9 16.9 ± 6.9
% Night in ARS foragea gls 2.0 0.17 15.0 ± 12.2 5.0 ± 4.7 8.3 ± 7.3
% Day in drift gls 2.7 0.10* 5.5 ± 6.2c 18.4 ± 16.3 7.0 ± 9.3c
% Night in drifta gls 18.5 .00001** 2.0 ± 2.8c 47.1 ± 9.3 4.2 ± 5.0c
% Day in drift forageb lm 0.8 0.47 10.2 ± 5.3 11.5 ± 12.8 20.5 ± 18.6
% Night in drift forage lm 5.0 0.02** 5.3 ± 6.6 25.2 ± 14.0c 28.0 ± 17.1c
Day landing ratea lm 0.3 0.75 1.37 ± 0.39 1.7 ± 0.74 1.76 ± 1.03
Night landing rateb lm 2.7 0.10* 0.47 ± 0.28c 1.60 ± 1.43c 1.04 ± 0.49c
Track characteristics
Daily travel (km) gls 9.9 0.001** 650 ± 115 337 ± 135c 412 ± 139c
Max rangeb (km) gls 2.8 0.09* 551 ± 284 254 ± 107c 305 ± 129c
Total distance (km) gls 6.5 0.008** 1352 ± 520 565 ± 140c 735 ± 328c
Trip duration (km) lm 0.35 0.71 2.04 ± 0.667 1.77 ± 0.485 1.75 ± 0.742
  1. A linear model (lm) was used when homogeneity was not violated and a generalized least squares model (gls) was applied when parameters showed heterogeneity, incorporating a ‘varIdent’ variance structure
  2. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05 (**) and marginal significance to P ≤ 0.1 (*)
  3. alog10-transformed for gls or lm
  4. bsquare-root transformed for gls or lm
  5. cindicates which clusters did not significantly differ from each other at P ≤ 0.05 in a multiple comparison post-hoc Tukey test