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Table 6 Habitat characteristics of wintering locations for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from October thru February in 2008/09, 2009/10, and 2010/11

From: Wintering North Pacific black-legged kittiwakes balance spatial flexibility and consistency

  2008/09 2009/10 2010/11
Bering Sea    
 Residency Time (d) 2.1 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.0 2.0 ± 0.8
 SST (°C) 4.65 ± 2.2 5.23 ± 0.94 5.87 ± 1.85
 Distance to Seamount (km) 455 ± 285 242 ± 133 362 ± 230
 SSH (cm) −9.12 ± 3.78 −8.34 ± 2.06 −10.96 ± 3.35
 EKE (cm2 s−2) 70.4 ± 35.9 39.1 ± 15.9 54.6 ± 27.2
 Distance to Eddy Edge (km) 143 ± 71 131 ± 48 169 ± 84
 Chl a (mg m−3) 1.40 ± 0.99 1.68 ± 2.21 2.25 ± 2.79
 Wind speed (m s−1) 9.17 ± 1.39 8.94 ± 0.70 8.49 ± 1.48
Subarctic Gyre (West)    
 Residency Time (d) 2.0 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.9 2.0 ± 0.5
 SST (°C) 7.75 ± 1.95 5.61 ± 1.78 5.33 ± 1.17
 Distance to Seamount (km) 392 ± 130 357 ± 118 348 ± 114
 SSH (cm) −17.99 ± 3.28 −14.83 ± 2.15 −15.49 ± 3.0
 EKE (cm2 s−2) 49.4 ± 19.1 58.9 ± 18.2 59.0 ± 28.4
 Distance to Eddy (km) 127 ± 29 124 ± 21 114 ± 11
 Chl a (mg m−3) 0.63 ± 0.22 0.55 ± 0.13 0.66 ± 0.32
 Wind speed (m s−1) 8.85 ± 1.52 9.64 ± 1.25 9.46 ± 0.90
Subarctic Gyre (East)    
 Residency Time (d) 2.0 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 0.7
 SST (°C) 7.82 ± 1.34 6.33 ± 1.54 6.58 ± 1.22
 Distance to Seamount (km) 766 ± 221 770 ± 228 744 ± 192
 SSH (cm) −14.78 ± 5.39 −10.79 ± 3.48 −13.55 ± 2.89
 EKE (cm2 s−2) 38.6 ± 12.6 58.9 ± 76.0 44.3 ± 34.4
 Distance to Eddy (km) 152 ± 35 163 ± 40 147 ± 37
 Chl a (mg m−3) 0.64 ± 0.28 0.48 ± 0.20 0.50 ± 0.21
 Wind speed (m s−1) 9.31 ± 1.70 9.49 ± 2.13 9.77 ± 2.07
Polar Front    
 Residency Time (d) 2.1 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 1.3
 SST (°C) 9.67 ± 1.22 8.50 ± 1.43 8.83 ± 1.68
 Distance to Seamount (km) 119 ± 390 122 ± 324 131 ± 325
 SSH (cm) 2.78 ± 6.72 5.30 ± 7.91 −0.89 ± 4.72
 EKE (cm2 s−2) 75.2 ± 23.8 67.7 ± 18.9 55.3 ± 32.5
 Distance to Eddy (km) 119 ± 21 122 ± 22 131 ± 42
 Chl a (mg m−3) 0.35 ± 0.05 0.32 ± 0.05 0.32 ± 0.06
 Wind speed (m s−1) 9.76 ± 0.95 9.91 ± 0.84 9.19 ± 2.61
  1. Yearly means ± SD are calculated from individual bird means in each ecoregion