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Table 2 Inter-annual comparison of mean (± SD) environmental parameters for the short-tailed shearwater chick-rearing period (January–April)

From: Breeding short-tailed shearwaters buffer local environmental variability in south-eastern Australia by foraging in Antarctic waters

Local conditions 2012 2013 2014 F df P-value
Gabo Island SST (°C) 19.7 ± 0.8* 20.2 ± 0.9* 21.2 ± 0.8** 12.37 2, 44 <0.001
Chl-a (mg.m−3) 0.5 ± 1.0 0.5 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 1.1 2.55 2, 44 0.09
Wind speed (m.s−1) 8.6 ± 2.2 8.4 ± 2.0 9.0 ± 2.4 1.01 2, 358 0.36
Wind direction (°) 138.7 ± 47.9 138.9 ± 48.7 132.2 ± 55.9 0.86 2, 358 0.43
Griffith Island SST (°C) 18.0 ± 0.6* 18.7 ± 0.5** 17.6 ± 0.5* 10.45 2, 42 <0.001
Chl-a (mg.m−3) 0.2 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 1.1 1.58 2, 42 0.22
Wind speed (m.s−1) 7.8 ± 1.8 7.1 ± 1.7 7.8 ± 1.7 0.64 2, 358 0.53
Wind direction (°) 156.5 ± 52.0 173.4 ± 58.6 179.1 ± 43.4 1.30 2, 358 0.27
Meso and large-scale processes       
Bonney Upwelling SST (°C) 17.6 ± 0.7* 18.8 ± 0.5** 17.6 ± 0.6* 13.31 2, 32 <0.001
SOI −0.8 ± 5.7 4.0 ± 5.8 −2.1 ± 8.4 2.67 2, 31 0.09
Sea ice concentration (%) 57.2 ± 27.4* 70.5 ± 26.5** 59.6 ± 27.7* 31.04 2, 47 <0.001
  1. Local conditions included sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), wind speed and wind direction. Meso-scale process included Bonney Upwelling sea surface temperatures (SST) over the austral summer (January–March) and large-scale processes included the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) over a yearly period and the sea ice concentration in the Antarctic region. Significant results are indicated in bold and homogenous subsets (P > 0.05) are indicated by asterisks