Typical trajectory of a male Manduca sexta moth in an experimental wind tunnel. Wind direction is from right to left (in the negative x-direction) at 100 c
m/s; moth flight direction is from left to right (in the positive x-direction). Small black circles indicate the raw path digitized from sequences of video frames, at 30 frames per second (see  for other experimental details). The blue line represents a corrected path after filtering to remove frame-rate noise. The red dots indicate maximum lateral excursions. The analyses in Figure 3 are based on straight-line connections between these excursion endpoints, shown here as red line segments. The semicircle at right is the pheromone source position. Black lines indicate the approximate edges of the time-averaged pheromone plume, as determined by titanium oxide smoke visualizations and electroantennogram assays.