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Table 2 Reported flight speeds for kittiwakes and murres

From: Windscapes shape seabird instantaneous energy costs but adult behavior buffers impact on offspring

Location Technique Source Ground speed (m/s)
Black-legged Kittiwake
Middleton Island, USA GPS logger (17 g) Current study 10.6 (no wind)
Middleton Island, USA GPS logger (11 g) [68] 9.2
Varanger peninsula, Norway Compared to car speedometer [86] 11 (headwind: 4 m/s)
Britain Ornithodolite [87] 13.1
Thick-billed Murre
Coats Island, Canada GPS logger (25 g) Current study 16.6 (no wind)
Coats Island, Canada Stopwatch over known distance [88] 20.9
Iceland Compass data logger (29 g) [89] 18.1
Prince Leopold Island, Canada Stopwatch over known distance [90] 20.1
Common Murre
Britain Stopwatch over known distance [91] 22
Britain Stopwatch over known distance [92] 18
Britain Ornithodolite [87] 19.1
British Columbia, Canada Marine radar [93] 19.7
Sweden GPS logger (28 g) [94] 20.1 outbound (prevailing tailwind)
15.1 inbound (prevailing headwind)
Russia Stopwatch over known distance [95] 19.4