Butterfly dispersal and landscape grain. A. Maps of the four landscapes where dispersal rates among local populations of the bog fritillary butterfly (Boloria eunomia) were studied. Landscapes are defined as the minimum convex polygon surrounding local populations. Grey patches symbolize habitats with local populations; the density of the grey patches indicates the grain of the landscape. CONT (continuous): extremely fine-grained landscape, AGREG (aggregated landscape): fine-grained landscape, FRAG (fragmented) landscapes: coarse-grained landscapes; HIFRAG (highly fragmented landscape): extremely coarse-grained landscape. p-values are the probability that a disperser will die during dispersal in each landscape. B. Plots of the dispersal propensity, i.e. the probability that an individual will leave a local population in each of the landscapes figured in panel A. Black dots and error bars are the mean and the standard error of the parameter averaged over several generations (grey dots and bars). Adapted from Schtickzelle et al. .