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Table 1 Review of studies that used step selection functions to model landscape effects on movement probability

From: Applications of step-selection functions in ecology and conservation

Study species Fix-rate # random steps Lengths and turning angles of random steps Modelling approach Model validation Ref.
Elk (Cervus elaphus) 5-hour 200 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals. Conditional logistic regression No [11]
Cougar (Puma concolor) 15-min 35 Step length equal to the mean of all movement segments recorded during the same period of time. Turning angles generated at 10° increments around the starting point. Compositional analysis No [22]
Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) 2-hour and 6-hour 10 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals. Conditional logistic regression No [46]
Elk (Cervus elaphus) 5-hour 20 Pairs of step-lengths and turning angles jointly sampled with replacement from empirical distributions. Conditional logistic regression No [20]
Moose (Alces alces) 2- hour 10 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals. Conditional logistic regression Yes (sensu Boyce et al. [59]) [24]
Grizzly bear (Ursus Arctos) 4-hour 20 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals considering different period of the day. Conditional logistic regression No [17]
Snowshoe Hares (Lepus americanus) 10-bound segment along hare trails left on snow 2 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals. Conditional logistic regression No [28]
North Island robin (Petroica longipes) 1-day 10 Single dispersal step (obtained with several 1-day locations) was matched with a random walk of the same length. Conditional logistic regression No [23]
Wolf (Canis lupus) 2-hour 25 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals at the seasonal scale. Conditional logistic regression No [25]
Barred Antshrike (Thammophilus doliatus); Rufous-naped Wren (Campylorhynchus rufinucha) 15-min 20 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals. Conditional logistic regression No [47]
Moose (Alces alces) 2-hour 2 Random turning angle (circular distribution). Random step length lower than the 99% quantile of the observed step lengths. Conditional logistic regression No [64]
Moose (Alces alces) 1-hour 5 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals at the seasonal scale. Conditional logistic regression Yes (sensu Boyce et al. [59]) [26]
Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) 1 hour 20 Drawn from 2 distributions established from observations of monitored individuals. Conditional logistic regression (individual modelling) No [27]
Lynx (Lynx canadensis) 30-min 5 Step length and turning angle data drawn from movement paths to distinguish activity bouts from resting bouts (i.e. clusters of GPS locations). Conditional logistic regression (individual modelling) Yes (sensu Boyce et al. [59]) [16]