Application of positioning estimators to data. (A) Comparison of dynamic tag locations at 1-second intervals (circles) versus 1-minute mean position estimates generated for a single time interval using ‘average’ (triangles), ‘observation-weighted’ (X’s), and ‘model-weighted’ (crosses) methods. Examples shown are for movements between receivers (Example 1: gray and black fill) and outside the array (Example 2: white fill). (B) Comparison of static tag location (gray circle) versus 5-minute model-weighted and observation-weighted positioning estimates, with highest concentration of points indicated by 25% kernel density estimates (KDE; ; h=25, c=10). (C) Model-weighted 5-minute mean position estimator movement paths relative to habitat for a yellowtail snapper (YTS), jolthead porgy (JP), and red grouper (RG) inferred from receiver (black square) detection patterns. DTNP-RNA: Dry Tortugas National Park Research Natural Area, FKNMS-TNER: Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Tortugas North Ecological Reserve.